Complete the following problems: Determine the number of cycles per day and the production quantity per cycle for this set of vehicles: Use the sequence A-B-C-D.
End points that have been examined include perception, 1 - 7 behavior, 8 - 11 nervous system function, 1213 endocrine function, 14 blood composition, 15 mood, 1617 and bone growth.
Most of the laboratory evidence involves exposures at extremely low frequency ELFwith fewer studies being reported at microwave frequencies. The relevance of this research to the possible effects of GWEN fields is therefore uncertain see section on Frequency Extrapolation.
This chapter briefly describes the human laboratory and clinical evidence. More detailed reviews are available elsewhere.
At extremely low frequencies, one perceives the presence of electric fields through stimulation of vibration or pressure sensors.
The detection of LF currents flowing through the skin is reviewed in Chapter 3. Briefly, the sensation of LF currents passed through either a fingertip or a gripped contact is one of warmth, with perception thresholds of mA, depending on the subject and type of contact. Netwk 320 week 7 i lab ELF currents passing through the retina cause the perception of images called phosphenes.
The effect is noted only in the ELF band and can be induced by either direct coupling or induction.
Thresholds for magnetically-induced phosphenes range from 8 mT at 20 Hz to 20 mT at 60 Hz. Pacemaker Interference Many older models of cardiac pacemakers are susceptible to electromagnetic interference. The threshold of susceptibility depends on the device design and on the frequency and amplitude of the interference.
Because there is a finite lifetime for pacemakers, most of the older models have been replaced by the new types. Circadian Rhythms Wever 35 - 37 used a specially constructed living environment with no time cues to demonstrate that human circadian periods are lengthened by an average of 20 min when the living space is shielded against natural electric and magnetic fields.
Introduction of a weak 2. The same square-wave field was also found to weakly entrain free-running circadian rhythms. Sinusoidal electric-field exposures of the same frequency and intensity were not as effective as the square-wave fields.
The experiments have not been repeated elsewhere. Brain-Evoked Potentials In an extensive series of experiments, Graham et al. Because only late components are affected, Graham and colleagues conclude that the effect is on the cognitive process of stimulus evaluation and not on overall neural conduction velocity.
Alterations in visually-evoked potentials VEPs were also reported by Silny 38 to occur in response to sinusoidal Hz magnetic fields with flux densities exceeding 5 mT.
The change in VEP was characterized by a reversal of polarity and a decrease in the amplitude of the three major evoked potentials.
The effects were observed within 3 min after onset of the magnetic-field exposure, and the VEP returned to normal by approximately min after termination of the exposure. Heart Rate Lowering of heart rate has been often, but not universally, observed in experiments involving human exposure to ELF electric fields, magnetic fields, and injected currents.
The studies reporting heart-rate decreases generally characterize them as temporary, noncumulative, and within the range of normal physiologic variation. The current density induced by LF exposures at the GWEN site boundary is hundreds of times larger than the ELF current densities associated with changes in heart rate 0.
Although experiments on the effects of exposure to radiofrequency RF fields on human heart rate are lacking, evidence from animal studies shows no acute effects of RF irradiation on heart rate in situ 26 also see Chapter 6.
Long-term effects of small RF exposure on cardiovascular function remain largely unstudied. Reaction Time The effects of ELF electric fields on human reaction time in response to auditory or visual stimuli have been extensively studied, but the results have been inconsistent. Five tests of mood and verbal reasoning were administered throughout the experiment.
Exposure-related effects were noted on the second day in stress level, as measured by a mood-adjective checklist, and in response times in tests of syntactic reasoning. In a second series of experiments involving an identical exposure regimen, Stollery measured the effects of Hz current on vigilance and concentration.
In their investigation of high-voltage linemen doing simulated line inspections, Gamberale and colleagues found no effect on wakefulness or stress, as measured by a mood-adjective questionnaire.
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Blood Composition Human laboratory studies examining field effects on blood composition are limited to the ELF range. Gamberale 44 found no effects on serum concentrations of seven hormones in linemen performing simulated inspections of a kV transmission line. In an experiment involving 11 subjects, Beischer, et al.
Bone Repair and Growth Stimulation Induced or injected currents have been widely used to treat recalcitrant nonunions of fractured bone by stimulating bone growth. Sinusoidal, DC, and pulsed currents have each produced some measure of success. That is comparable with the average LF electric field and current density induced in bone tissue of a person standing at the boundary of a GWEN RN site.The State Personnel Board has scheduled its regular meeting on Friday, November 30, at a.m.
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ß 1. Looking at the above graph, write a short paragraph on what is happening here with the congestion window and the flight size.